Fat But Fit Does Not Reduce Risks Associated With Heart Failure And Stroke
A study by British researchers from the University of Birmingham shows no reduction in heart failure or stroke risk in metabolically healthy or physically fit obese or overweight individuals. Earlier studies indicated that an individual can be metabolically healthy even though that individual is obese or overweight. Metabolically healthy means individual with normal blood fats, normal blood sugar levels or no diabetes and normal blood pressure or no hypertension.
After going through 3.5 million individuals records over ten years period, researchers says "fat but fit" health theory does not reduce risks associated with heart failure or stroke. Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) individuals are those individuals who are obese with respect to body mass index (BMI) but no signs of obesity related problems such as diabetes, blood pressure and blood fats. Researchers have done comparative heart health studies between metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) individuals and normal body mass index (BMI) individuals. They found following enhanced cardiovascular disease risks among metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) individuals
Author of the study was Dr Rishi Caleyachetty, an epidemiologist, the University of Birmingham. The study findings were presented at the European Congress on Obesity (ECO2017), held between 17 and 20 May, 2017 at Porto, Portugal.
Discovery Of Prkca Gene Which Causes Birth Defects And Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) In Pregnant Women With Diabetes
A prkca gene helps cells of the body in disposing waste matter (process known as autophagy). A prkca gene becomes overactive and prevents autophagy process in the diabetes patients. This causes creation of embryonic tissue leading to major birth defects such as neural tube defects. The overactive prkca gene also causes production of kinase C-alpha or PKCalpha protein. This causes decrease in the protein called PGC-1alpha due to increase in the expression of the miR-129-2 molecule due to kinase C-alpha or PKCalpha protein. Decrease in the levels of PGC-1alpha causes destruction of flawed cells in the body.
Researchers from University of Maryland School of Medicine have discovered above gene (prkca gene) due to which neural tube defects (NTDs) will be formed in born babies of pregnant women with diabetes. Neural tube defects (NTDs) is a common problem in pregnant women with diabetes. The current discovery helps researchers to understand and develop new treatments to stop or prevent neural tube defects (NTDs).
The researchers have conducted experiments with pregnant diabetic mice models by deleting prkca gene and allowed autophagy to work normally. They found fewer NTDs in the embryos. The researchers also conducted experiments to bring down levels of neural tube defects (NTDs) by altering or increasing expression of PGC-1alpha protein in developing neural cells. Researchers says tube defects (TDs) can be stopped or prevented by medications which can help in the prevention of PKCalpha protein or miR-129-2 molecule or activation of PGC-1alpha protein. Lead author of the study was Professor Peixin Yang, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine (UM SOM). Other authors include Dean E Albert Reece, MD, PhD, MBA, Professor John Z and Professor Akiko K Bowers. The study findings were published in the journal Nature Communications.
Neural tube defects : Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects happening in brain and in spinal cord areas during the first month of pregnancy. At that moment, the pregnant women doesn't know that she was pregnant. Earlier studies shows consuming vitamin B9, folate or folic acid supplements before and during pregnancy can reduce neural tube defects (NTDs). 95 percent of neural tube defects (NTDs) of the babies can be diagnosed with ultrasound scan during 18 to 20 weeks of the pregnancy. Common causes for neural tube defects (NTDs) in born babies are due to mother's obesity, folic acid deficiency, diabetes etc. Studies shows babies of nearly ten percent of pregnant women with diabetes suffer from neural tube defects. Another study shows three to ten times enhanced risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in women with diabetes (diabetes prior to pregnancy) when compared with women without diabetes. Neural tube defects (NTDs) affects nearly 300,000 pregnant women globally every year and nearly ten percent of the babies with the neural tube defects (NTDs) die within a year.
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Published by Jammi Vasista, Chennai, India.