Diabetes, Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases News Chronicle.  Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Heart Diseases
 Article 204
    Published on June 14, 2017


True Cause Of Respiratory Weakness Or Dyspnea In Heart Failure

A study by researchers from the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada and the Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada shows the brain is the true cause of respiratory weakness or dyspnea in heart failure. Researchers conducted six years of painstaking experiments and studies with mice models to find out respiratory weakness mechanism contributing to dyspnea in heart failure. The experiments led to the discovery of a diaphragm (a large muscle) which helps in the breathing function. Faulty signals from brain cause problems to the functioning of this diaphragm. That shows brain functionality is the root cause of the respiratory weakness or dyspnea. Under certain conditions, breathing problems in mice models were prevented by using a first line heart therapy medications and blood pressure controlling medications.



True Cause Of Respiratory Weakness Or Dyspnea In Heart Failure.

Co-author of the study was Keith Brunt, assistant professor of pharmacology, Dalhousie Medical School, Dalhousie University, Saint John, Canada and lead author of the study was Jeremy Simpson, professor of human health and nutritional sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The study findings were published in May 2017 in the journal Science Translational Medicine. This study was funded by

  • The Canadian Institutes of Health Research
  • The Ontario Thoracic Society
  • The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council



       
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US FDA Adds Boxed Amputation Risk Warning To Invokana Type 2 Diabetes Drug


US FDA Adds Boxed Amputation Risk Warning To Invokana Type 2 Diabetes Drug.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said that a new boxed warning to amputation must be added to the label of invokana (canagliflozin) drug, a type 2 diabetes (T2D) medication manufactured by Janssen Pharmaceuticals. A boxed warning means possibilities of the most serious adverse events. Results of two large clinical trials (CANVAS and CANVAS-R) on the performance of invokana type 2 diabetes (T2D) drug shows increased risk of amputations of leg and foot when compared to placebo drug. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has requested healthcare professionals and patients using invokana medication to give feedback on the side effects. The FDA received following leg amputations reports with the usage of invokana medication.


  • Below the knee level
  • Above the knee level
  • Single amputation
  • Amputations to both limbs



       
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Metformin Improves Health Outcomes In HER2 And Breast Cancer Patients With Diabetes

Researchers say health forecast of breast cancer patients with diabetes were poor when compared with non-diabetic patients. An analysis of the phase III ALTTO trial done by the researchers at Jules Bordet Institute shows health improvements in diabetic patients with HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) and positive primary breast cancer with the usage of metformin drug. Researchers observed direct and indirect anti-tumor effects, particularly in breast cancer patients with the usage of metformin drug during the analysis of pre-clinical and clinical data. The researchers conducted analytical studies among 8,381 patients. Diabetic patients with metformin treatment were 186 and without metformin treatment were 260. The results after 4.5 years of follow up studies shows


  • 929 distant DFS (DDFS) events
  • 1,205 disease-free survival (DFS) events
  • 528 deaths

Metformin Improves Health Outcomes In HER2 And Breast Cancer Patients With Diabetes.

Significant worse disease-free survival (DFS) events were found in those diabetic patients who were not treated with metformin when compared with non-diabetic patients. Similar health outcomes were found in diabetic patients under the treatment of metformin and non-diabetic patients. Even though there is no level 1 evidence, the researchers say healthcare professionals may recommend metformin treatment to avoid possible insulin usage in those patients with HER2-positive and hormone receptor positive disease and diabetes. Those patients used insulin may be at higher risk of recurrence. Lead author of the study was Evandro de Azambuja, MD, PhD from the Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels and the study findings were published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.




       
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