Diabetes, Heart, and Cardiovascular Diseases News Chronicle.
Article 254   Published on October 10, 2017

Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG) Is Effective In Treating Atherosclerotic Coronary Arteries In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

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A study has found that the coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the best procedure for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary arteries in patients with type 2 diabetes (and even among patients with type 1 diabetes) suffering from multi-vessel coronary artery disease. This study has confirmed the current international guidelines recommending that CABG over the balloon catheter (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. PCI) procedure for patients with type 2 diabetes who are with two are more unhealthy or diseased coronary vessels.



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Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is effective for the treatment of atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

In a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a surgeon will use a balloon catheter (catheter with an inflatable balloon at its tips) to expand or enlarge a narrow artery. The percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is also known as coronary angioplasty or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

A follow-up study on patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who underwent a procedure for improving the blood circulation in the heart with two or more narrowed coronary vessels (called revascularization) in Sweden between 1995 and 2013. A 10-year follow-up study among those patients who underwent revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when compared to coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) show the following risks with PCI procedure


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Health problem % Higher risks with PCI
Fatal heart diseases 45%
Myocardial infarction 47%
The likely chance for additional PCI or CABG is five times

The study also found that the number of CABG in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) declined from 58 percent (between 1995 and 2000) to five percent (between 2007 and 2013) as the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-invasive procedure and it easier to perform.

The study also found that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) can be the preferred treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) with two or more unhealthy or diseased coronary vessels. The current guidelines also suggest the same thing.



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The author of the study is Dr. Martin J Holzmann MD, Ph.D., the Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden. The study was published online on August 26, 2017, in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC). Title of the article was "Survival After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients With Preoperative Heart Failure and Preserved vs Reduced Ejection Fraction."
doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2016.1465



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CABG: The coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedure will be performed on patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) (due to plaque in the arteries) to improve the blood flow to the heart. This procedure will require general anesthesia and may take between three and six hours. The severity of blockages and the location of the blockage are the factors for the number of bypass surgeries. Up to six bypass surgeries can be performed at a time.


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The nursing or care after CABG was intended to lower risk factors for heart diseases such as blood pressure (BP), stress and cholesterol levels, stopping tobacco use, regular exercise and leading a better lifestyle along with medications. The following are some of the complications of CABG surgery.

  • The formation of blood clots.
  • Between five and ten percent of the patients may experience heart attacks.
  • Between one and two percent of the patients (primarily in elderly or old age patients) may experience a stroke.
  • About five percent of the patients may require re-exploration due to bleeding (before or after surgery), a risk of lung complications and chest infections.
  • The risk of another CABG surgery may increase each year, a two percent risk after five years and a seven percent risk after ten years.

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