Diabetes, Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases News Chronicle.  Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Heart Diseases
 Article 264
    Published on October 29, 2017


Wearable and disposable paper-based device to measure sugar or glucose levels of sweat to prevent hypoglycemia and seizure events

The previous study shows the risk of cardiovascular diseases and high blood sugar or glucose levels can be reduced in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with regular workout or exercise program along with diet containing low glycemic index foods and medications. Muscles and body cells consume more glucose sugar from blood while doing exercise. Risks to hypoglycemia or low blood sugar or glucose levels exist for diabetic patients during exercise or workouts, which may lead to loss of consciousness and a seizure.


Researchers at the State University of New York, (Binghamton University or SUNY Binghamton) Binghamton have developed a new single-use biosensor patch, which can help diabetic patients from hypoglycemia events while doing exercise or workouts. There are some flaws in the current devices using sweat to measure sugar or glucose levels in an individual. They are

  • Existing devices could not able collect enough sweat sample for sugar or glucose level analysis
  • Sweat evaporation risks in the existing devices
  • The existing devices need longer time to collect enough sweat sample for sugar or glucose level analysis

A device to measure sugar or glucose of sweat to prevent hypoglycemia seizure during workouts exercise.

Researchers have eliminated all above flaws in this new wearable and disposable paper-based and plaster like device. The device measures sugar or glucose levels using the sweat collected during the workout or immediately after the exercise, which is a non-invasive procedure. This device does not require an external power supply and uses self-powered readout instruments. The investigator of this device was Assistant Professor Seokheun Choi, PhD, Electrical and Computer Engineering, the Binghamton University, Binghamton, United States.




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Seizure : It is a serious medical condition associated with extremely low sugar (hypoglycemia or insulin shock) or high glucose levels in the blood, especially in a diabetic patient. This may not require emergency treatment. This may happen due to variations in the insulin levels, intercurrent disease (a disease during the course of another disease) or due to other metabolic factors.

 

Cortical bone microstructure and tibia density deficits may increase fracture risk in elderly or senior people with type 2 diabetes

Older (seniors) people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) succumb to fractures compared to older people without type 2 diabetes (T2D) even though older people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have normal to higher bone density compared with people without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Bone fractures may lead to decreased quality of life, disability and even death with increased medical costs.


A study done by researchers shows bone density deficits in the distal tibia (image on the right side) and cortical (or compact) bone microstructure is associated with increased HbA1c (or blood sugar or glucose levels) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Researchers say traditional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (also known as DEXA, DXA, bone density scan or bone densitometry scan) could not identify specific deficits in cortical (or compact) bone density in diabetic patients.

Researchers have conducted studies among 1000 women and men, with an average age of 65 years. They used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) to compare bone microarchitecture among healthy individuals and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Results show weakness in cortical bone microarchitecture (which cannot be identified in standard bone density testing equipment) among older type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Researchers say fracture risk increases in type 2 diabetes (T2D) individuals due to the alterations in the microarchitecture of cortical (or compact) bone.


Bone fracture in type 2 diabetes patients with cortical compact microstructure tibia density deficits.

Lead authors of the study were Elizabeth J. Samelson, PhD, the Hebrew SeniorLife's Institute for Aging Research, Boston, United States. The study findings were published on September 20, 2017, in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. Title of the article was "Diabetes and Deficits in Cortical Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Bone Size: Framingham HR-pQCT Study."




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Bone : There are two types of bone tissues. They differ in their microstructure arrangement even though they are similar biologically (see the image above right).

  • Compact bone (or cortical bone) tissue, denser with the hard exterior
  • Spongy bone (trabecular or cancellous bone) tissue, less dense compared to compact bone. This part of the bone contains red bone marrow, which produces blood cells

 

 

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