Diabetes, Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases News Chronicle.  Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Heart Diseases
 Article 278
    Published on December 9, 2017

Predictive factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD)

A study shows the way of development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) were different and they affect different blood vessels even though both of these diseases share common risk factors.

A study spanning more than 20 years, researchers have enrolled 15,373 healthy men and women between 1984 and 1995, aged between 30 and 75 years in Scotland. None of them had cardiovascular events at the time of enrollment. They have done 20 years of follow up studies to document predictive factors to future heart disease. Factors such as age of the participant, sex, family history of coronary heart disease (inherited risk factors of CHD), socioeconomic status, type 2 diabetes T2D (or high blood glucose levels), tobacco usage, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or "GOOD" cholesterol levels were considered in the study. Researchers have calculated 45 risk factors to the diseases by using stored serum samples, initial statistics and baseline findings.

During 20 years of follow up studies, researchers found coronary heart disease (CHD) development in 3,098 participants (about 20 percent) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in 499 participants (about 3.2 percent). More than 50 percent of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients had coronary heart disease (CHD) too. But 143 participants had peripheral arterial disease (PAD) complication followed by coronary heart disease (CHD) and 97 participants had coronary heart disease (CHD) complication followed by peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Both peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) was developed simultaneously in 45 participants.

The study shows even though there was an overlap between these two diseases, the predictive factors were different for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and for coronary heart disease (CHD). Prominent predictor of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was tobacco usage followed by diabetes (or high blood sugar levels) and inflammation. The predictors for coronary heart disease (CHD) were evenly distributed with factors such as high cholesterol levels. Socioeconomic status and family history for heart diseases (inherited risk factors for heart diseases) were significant predictors for both diseases. But total cholesterol was not a predictive factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

Researchers say peripheral arterial disease (PAD) events are important cardiovascular disease, but less frequent and follows with a delay after the onset of coronary heart disease (CHD). PAD events are not very often compared with stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) events and effect in the life of a patient. Independent prediction of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is less important than a prediction of cardiovascular disease. Need for a separate PAD predictive score compared with cardiovascular disease predictive score is not warranted as there is just 3.2 percent of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) events over 20 years period.

Predictor for peripheral arterial disease PAD is tobacco usage, diabetes (blood sugar) and inflammation.

Lead researcher of the study was Dr. Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe, MD, Institute of Cardiovascular Research, University of Dundee, UK. The study findings were published September 18, 2017, in the Journal of the American Heart Association. Title of the article was "Twenty-Year Predictors of Peripheral Arterial Disease Compared With Coronary Heart Disease in the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (SHHEC)."

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