Diabetes, Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases News Chronicle.  Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Heart Diseases
 Article 297
    Published on January 24, 2018


A link between obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes


Obesity or a high body mass index (BMI) is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). More than 400 million people worldwide were affected by the obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.

Prevention of high blood sugar (glucose) levels, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance associated with obesity.

Now, the researchers from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center identified the mechanism behind the development of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity (or overweight).

The pancreas secretes insulin, and insulin helps us in delivering glucose and oxygen from the bloodstream into cells to produce energy. Most of the glucose produced by the liver will be consumed by the muscles.

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The researchers found that the insulin in the obese people was unable to pass through the cells that form the inner lining of blood vessels. As insulin could not deliver the glucose into cells, blood glucose levels increase, leading to the insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) levels is a risk factor for diseases associated with kidney, blood vessels (arteries) and vision (eye).

Immunoglobulins, a large Y-shaped antibody protein, helps the immune system to neutralize the external viruses and bacteria. Researchers say that the delivery of glucose by the insulin to muscle with the help of immunoglobulins is the main cause of the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity.

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In experiments involving obese mice models, researchers found an enzyme needed for the transfer of insulin (with glucose and oxygen) from the blood to muscle was prevented due to an unpredictable chemical change in the immunoglobulins. A non-diabetic mouse will become a diabetic if it receives immunoglobulins from a mouse with type 2 diabetes. Researchers say an obese person is at similar risk.

In the study, researchers identified an agent that can prevent an unexpected chemical change in the immunoglobulins. Researchers are successful in testing the agent in preventing the high blood sugar (glucose) levels in mice models. Now, the researchers are planning to experiment in humans.

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Co-senior author of the study was Dr. Chieko Mineo, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Pediatrics, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, the United States. The study was published November 27, 2017, in the journal of clinical investigation. Title of the article was "Hyposialylated IgG activates endothelial IgG receptor FcγRIIB to promote obesity-induced insulin resistance." DOI : doi.org/10.1172/JCI89333

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